Prevalence of PCOS in India 2021 | PCOS Statistics India 2021

All these unhealthy habits have led to an increase in the PCOS in India or PCOS statistics in India 2021. Today, about 22.5% of women or every one in five Indian women suffers from PCOS in India. In this article, we will talk about PCOS in detail and look into topics like the prevalence of PCOS in India 2021 and complications like PCOS infertility.

PCOS in India is a medical condition caused by leading an unhealthy lifestyle. It can have many adverse effects on our bodies. Our lives have become very fast-paced, and all of us are always chasing some goals. While all this makes us more successful and accomplished, this often leads to an unhealthy lifestyle. We do not eat well, we do not get the time to exercise adequately, and we more often than not live in long periods of stress.

1. What happens in PCOS?

PCOS is a medical condition that occurs because of an unhealthy lifestyle. The main cause of PCOS is the disbalance between the male and female reproductive hormones in women’s bodies in the reproductive age.

The prevalence of PCOS in India 2021 is about 22.5%.

Normally, the ovaries produce female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and a small amount of male hormone, testosterone. PCOS causes an imbalance between these hormones and causes an increase in testosterone and a decrease in estrogen and progesterone. This is the leading cause of all the symptoms that are seen in PCOS.

PCOS infertility

This is the most common complication that occurs with PCOS. Because of hormonal imbalance, the follicles do not mature properly, and ovulation does not occur. This leads to a decrease in the levels of progesterone and estrogen. Hence, PCOS affects conception in most women. 

Lack of ovulation causes irregular or scanty cycles and thus, PCOS causes infertility in women suffering from PCOS. PCOS is the most common cause of infertility in Indian women.

But this can be reversed by eating well-balanced diets, exercising regularly, and managing stress levels. Certain medications are also available which help women conceive since PCOS affects conception in women.

PCOS and endometrial cancer

One of the most significant risk factors for endometrial cancer is increased estrogen levels when compared to progesterone. In PCOS, testosterone and estrogen levels are increased as compared to progesterone. Therefore, PCOS is a significant risk factor for endometrial cancer.

2. Why PCOS in India so common?

PCOS is becoming increasingly common in India because of a variety of factors. The PCOS statistics in India 2021 show that one in five Indian women suffers from PCOS. In addition, urban women are at a higher risk of developing PCOS because of their bad lifestyle habits. 

PCOS is common in women suffering from obesity. It has been seen that more than 80% of women suffering from PCOS are overweight or obese. 

The exact cause of PCOS is not yet clear. But some factors have been implicated in the development of PCOS in women, such as:

  • Genetic cause
  • Insulin resistance 
  • Inflammation 

All these factors cause an increase in testosterone levels, which prevent the ovaries from functioning normally. 

Genetic cause

Scientists believe that defects in more than one gene can cause PCOS in women. A genetic cause is evident by the fact that PCOS often runs in families. Therefore, you are at a higher risk of developing PCOS if somebody in your family already has it. 

Insulin resistance

Almost 70% of women with PCOS have insulin resistance. Insulin resistance means that the body’s cells are not receptive to the insulin produced by the pancreas. 

The pancreas produces insulin that regulates blood sugar levels by promoting glucose uptake by the cells. When the cells do not respond appropriately to insulin (because of insulin resistance), the pancreas produces more amounts of insulin. This leads to an increase in insulin levels in the body. 

This extra insulin in the body promotes the ovaries to produce more male hormone, testosterone, leading to PCOS. Being overweight or obese is the primary cause of insulin resistance in the body. This is the reason that PCOS is common in women suffering from obesity.


Studies have shown that a state of inflammation in the body causes more testosterone release. Being overweight contributes to inflammation in the body.

Some common complications that can occur because of PCOS include the following: 

  • PCOS infertility
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Increased risk of heart diseases
  • Insulin resistance and diabetes
  • Increased risk of endometrial cancer
  • Depression

3. Common Signs, Symptoms, and Diagnosis of PCOS

Signs and symptoms of PCOS include the following:

  • Irregular menstrual cycles
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Excessive hair growth on the face and other parts of the body like chest, back, armpits, legs, etc. This condition is known as hirsutism.
  • Facial and body acne
  • Male-pattern type hair loss or baldness
  • Weight gain
  • Darkening of the skin folds like the neck, groin, and under the breasts, which is known as Acanthosis Nigricans. 

Diagnosis of PCOS

For the diagnosis of PCOS, at least two out of three of the following should be present in any patient :

  • High testosterone levels
  • Irregular menstrual cycles
  • Presence of multiple cysts in the ovary

For PCOS diagnosis, your PCOS doctor will take your detailed medical history to determine any risk factors and conduct a physical examination consisting of a pelvic exam. A pelvic exam is done to check for any cysts or other reproductive tract problems that can be felt manually. 

Other than that, you will have to undergo some blood tests and radiological investigations. 

Blood tests are done to check the testosterone and insulin levels in your body to reach a final diagnosis. Other blood tests like blood sugar levels and other reproductive hormone levels are also done. 

Radiological investigations like Ultrasound are done to look for the presence of cysts in the ovaries.

4. How is PCOS treated?

The only definitive treatment of PCOS is lifestyle modification. Certain things can help you reverse the symptoms and complications of PCOS, such as:

  • Eating a well-balanced diet full of fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Doing an adequate amount of exercise
  • Losing weight if you are overweight or obese
  • Managing stress and anxiety levels
  • Doing yoga and meditation 

Other than this, certain medications help alleviate symptoms of PCOS. 

Combined oral contraceptive pills

Birth control pills are the drug of choice for patients with PCOS. These contain estrogen and progesterone and help stabilize the body’s hormone levels and regulate the menstrual cycles. These medications also alleviate symptoms like acne, hirsutism, and hair loss by stabilizing the hormone levels. These also protect against the risk of endometrial cancer as they contain progesterone. 

Progestin therapy

Progestin is taken for 10 to 14 days every one to two months, and this helps bring the hormone levels back to normal. This also has protective effects against endometrial cancer in the future.

Clomiphene, metformin, and letrozole are used to treat infertility in women with PCOS.

Take Away

This was a brief article on PCOS and its causes and treatment. If you suffer from PCOS, consult only the best gynecologist for your treatment. 

At Hemi Soneja Clinic, you will get the right suggestions and care according to your concerns. She is a diabetes specialist & expert in PCOS Treatment.

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