Thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped gland situation in the front part of the neck in front of the windpipe or trachea and releases thyroxine hormone which controls metabolism in the body. Usually the body releases the right amount of hormone but when this balance is disturbed that is what creates problems and it becomes necessary to seek possibly the best thyroid treatment.
Thyroid problem is of two types primarily
- Under-active thyroid or Hypothyroidism - Decreased hormone production of thyroxine leads to Hypothyroidism. This can be because of several reasons including Iodine deficiency, inflammation in the thyroid gland or because of autoimmune disorders. This can also be because of surgery on the thyroid or radiation treatment for other reasons on the neck and thyroid area. Pituitary gland disorders can also lead to problems with underactive thyroid. Thyroid Treatment in delhi typically involves thyroxine hormone replacement. Thyroid hormone replacement is free from side effects and well tolerated. The dose required is different for different individuals at different points of time and it therefore requires monitoring from time to time. If managed well, under active thyroid is an easy medical problem to control and does not cause long term problems. If not addressed timely or thyroid treatment recommendations are not followed, uncontrolled hypothyroidism can lead to other medical problems like Obesity, High BP, High Cholesterol, pregnancy problems, Diabetes, period problems, skin problems, fatigue, etc.
- OVERACTIVE THYROID or HYPERTHYROIDISM - If thyroid gland is producing more than the required amount of thyroid hormone it is called Hyperthyroidism. This again can be because of various reasons like autoimmune disorder, viral infection, overproducing nodules, etc. Depending on the cause of hyperthyroidism the duration of symptoms or disease may last for a few weeks to few years to decades. Treatment of hyperthyroidism in Delhi is dependent on the cause of it. It can be treated with anti thyroid medications which suppress the hormone production from the thyroid; or Radioiodine treatment (this again suppresses the thyroid hormone production) or surgery (Partial or total thyroidectomy).
- SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM - According to a diabetologist/endocrinologist in delhi It is a very common medical problem which we encounter. In this the TSH levels are found to be above the upper limit of normal but below 10 and the active hormone levels free T4 and free T3 are normal. These are essentially borderline levels of TSH - depending on various factors including age, gender, physiological stage, other concomitant medical problems we decide if somebody needs thyroid hormone replacement for this or not. Not everybody who has these borderline levels needs to be started on supplements.
- GESTATIONAL HYPOTHYROIDISM - or Pregnancy associated Hypothyroidism again is a common medical problem. Thyroid hormone is required for normal growth of the growing baby. It’s only after 16 weeks of pregnancy that the growing baby starts to make its own thyroid hormone, prior to that it is entirely dependent on mothers thyroid hormone for its adequate growth and development. We therefore have different cut off for “Normal” levels of thyroid hormone in pregnancy. Therefore, at times women would be advised thyroid hormone replacement during the course of pregnancy. If thyroid is treated on a timely basis, pregnancy goes smoothly just like any other pregnancy.
Another problem which people come across is Thyroid nodules. Nodules are small lumps in the thyroid gland which might vary in size from a few mm to few cm in size. Most thyroid nodules are benign (or non cancerous) but some of them can be cancerous. These are typically diagnosed on an ultrasound and might require an FNAC (fine needle aspiration) to diagnose the nature of the nodule. Most cancers of thyroid are very amenable to treatment and respond well. So if you feel any lump or nodule in the front of your neck, you should not ignore that and get it checked by the doctor.
Parathyroid Gland & Disorders
Parathyroid glands are 4 small glands located right next to the thyroid gland in the neck - two on each side. Although their name is “Parathyroid”, their functioning is not related to the thyroid gland and the effect of Parathormone which is released from these glands is totally unrelated to thyroid gland or thyroid hormone. Parathormone or PTH regulates calcium and Vitamin D metabolism in the body. It’s levels are affected by a lot of different factors including Vitamin D levels, kidney function, calcium and phosphorus levels in the body. There at times can be problems due to over functioning nodules or adenoma in the Parathyroid gland which can cause high PTH levels and as a result cause excess calcium levels in the body leading to bone problems, kidney stones, psychiatric problems, body aches and pains etc. The treatment for abnormal parathyroid hormone levels needs thorough evaluation by a combination of various blood tests, ultrasound, nuclear medicine scan depending on suspected cause. For the most part addressing the cause of increased PTH levels helps treat the problem. At times, in cases of parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma, or cancer, surgery might be needed.